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Genres of Literature and Speech

2 Jan

Here are six key types of speeches:

1) Public speech (political)
2) Graduation speech
3) Motivational speech/Vision Leadership/Keynote
4) Sales/Pitch/Biz Dev speech
5) Story
6) Funeral

* Manifestos I guess can fit in any of the above–primarily one through three.

** Also I should point out the categories are somewhat porous. For instance, vision and keynotes borrow from a number of the other categories.

Literatures to access speech and persuasion:
1) Marketing
2) Movies
3) Music
4) Poetry


Sally Hogshead on How to Fascinate

1 Feb

To learn more about How to Fascinate by Sally Hogshead

2012 World Championship of Public Speaking: Trust is a Must

24 Jul

Communications for Social Entrepreneurs–Inspiring TED Talks and Speeches

16 Jul

Key Questions about Communication and Social Entrepreneurship
What are the best examples of communication by social entrepreneurs?

What are the types of communication that social entrepreneurs engage in?

How do social entrepreneurs communicate differently?

Examples of social entrepreneur communication
• Bill Gates (link)
• Melinda Gates (link)
• Jacqueline Novogratz (link)
• Ken Robinson (link)
• Bono (link)

Articles on communication strategies by social entrepreneurs:
• Carmine Gallo article in Forbes about Bono (link)

Communication Related Resources:
• Top 100 Speeches (link)
• Inspiring TED Talks by Social Entrepreneurs (link)
• Acumen Fellows Reading List (link)

Robert Cialdini on the Science of Persuasion

1 Jan

1) Reciprocity (Specialness is of reciprocity is even better)
2) Scarcity (Uniqueness)
3) Authority (Expertise/Trust/Social Proof)
4) Consistency (Small Commitments. Foot in door. Voluntary, Active, and Public–in Writing)
5) Liking (Similar, Complements, Cooperative or Cooperate with Us)
6) Consensus (Actions & Behaviors of Others. For instance, hotels on Re-use of Linen)

To learn more about the 6 tools, you can do so at here

Resources for Storytelling & Storywriting for Presenting

21 Nov

Springboard Story (link)

Hero’s Journey (link)

7 Types of Brand Stories (link)

TED Talks on Story (Andrew Stanton, JJ Abrams, Simon S) (link to Andrew Stanton’s presentation)

Archetypal Plots/Types of Stories (here and here and here and here)

Mega list of archetypes (here as well as a short list of 25 here)

Theory of narrative identity (link to abstract)

See also TED Talks on emotion & which help with emotional intelligence.

The Secrets to Memorable Moments

21 Nov

1) reframe, metaphor, distintion
2) detail, concreteness
3) story, conflict/challenge (hero’s journey diagram here)
4) alliteration/parallelism *****
5) slogans *****
6) repetition and amplification
7) self-reflection (aka questions)
8) innovation/art
9) Visual that clarifies, connects, or resonates
10) Positioning. Make a list of contrasts ? (contrasts/thematic contrasts)
11) Emotional triggers
12) Relevance & resonance (through understanding & empathy & common ground).

To be clear, none of these intrinsically make a memorable presentation–but rather than create the building blocks for memorable speeches.

This link and this link may also be helpful.

Persuasive Presentations

21 Nov

Classic Rhetoric/Aristotle

Part 1:
• Kairos (timing, context, story of the present or history/roots/origin story)
• Ethos (trust/credibility,including quotations or association with heroes or experts or models of doing)
• Pathos (emotional appeals, emotional triggers)
• Logos (logical, data, reasoning)
• Mythos (Cultural)

Part 2:
• Common ground (values, goals, etc….)
• Identity/character
• Community/belonging
• Contrast (before & after, etc…)
• Metaphor
• Analogy
• Alliteration
• Parallelism
• Example
• Story
• Multi-disciplinary and/or systems theory or industry specific standards/decision-making model (Topics)
• Visual, auditory, Kinestetic/experiential (internal/external) (mostly visual, action, emotional***)

Part 3:
• Positioning, Juxtaposition
• Voices on both sides
• Myths, assumptions, schemas, history, lessons, (voice in head/visual in head)
• Opportunity cost (clearly, dramatically)
• Memory
• Questions
• Coaching/Consultive selling
• Decision-making

Part 4:
• Aristotelean logic models (?)

Part 5:
• Social psychology models
• Sales models
• Negotiation models
• Pitch models

My thoughts on proposals and critical thinking.

Various stuff to learn about public speaking

21 Nov

1) Vision/Awakening
2) Up/Down
3) Character ?
4) Light/Dark
5) Growth
6) Farming
7) Action
8) Change

Here are a couple other areas:
• Metaphor and framing/Lackoff & Johnson
• Embodied metaphors
• Informal logic
• Counter-factuals
• Calls to action
• Grouping emotional appeals

Various areas of speeches I’m interested in studying

21 Nov

Five possible areas:
1. Education/Children
2. National Parks
3. Space Program (JFK?) (Ronald Reagan?)
4. Great Society (?)
5. Other political/social/cultural reform

1. University presidents
2. Coaches (difficult to find)
3. Military General speeches
4. Graduation speeches
5. Motivational speeches
6. Preacher/Biblical

What values are commonly evoked in political public speaking

20 Nov

I’m going to blend the answers for local government and national government (each has its respective buzz words & values)

1) National security
2) Lives
3) Rights, Constitutional rights, Free Speech
4) Democracy, Self-representation
5) Values, Character, Leadership, Honesty, Community values, Family values
6) Success/failure
7) Family
8) Culture (?)
9) Less crime
10) Education
11) Sustainability, Environmental security (and the like)
12) Economy, Jobs, Increased Employment

Not sure how or if these could be ranked.

Supplemental List of Speeches

12 Nov

1) Demosthenese of Athens
2) Patrick Henry, Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death
3) Elizabeth I to Her Army
4) Marie Curie on Discovery
4) Paul
5) Susan B Anthony
6) Tucumseh on Unity
7) Gandi on Trial
8) Martin Luther King Junior’s I Have a Dream speech

This list comes from Dr. Hale at the University of Louisville. This is borrowed from his table of contents. I’m using it based on educational/fair use and overall academic citation.

It seems light on African American speeches, although Dream is certainly one.
It has 3 speeches by women.
6 are by minorities.

Videos of Top Public Speakers in US History

11 Nov

Early American Speeches:
1) Susan B Anthony (link)
2) Clarence Darrow (link)
3) Patrick Henry (link to YouTube)
4) Ben Franklin (link)
5) Ralph Waldo Emerson (link)
6) Abraham Lincoln (link)
7) William Wilberforce (link to abolition speech) ???
8) William Jennings Bryan (link)
9) Fredrick Douglas (link)
10) (Famous) Abolistionist Speeches

Modern American & World Speeches
1) Theodore Roosevelt
2) Fredrick Delano Roosevelt
3) Douglas McArthur (link to Douglas McArthur speech on YouTube)
4) MLK Jr. (link to the speech from the National Mall in Washington DC on YouTube)
5) JFK (link to JFK speech on YouTube)
6) Barbara Jordan (link to the speech at the Democratic National Convention in 1976 on YouTube)
7) Nelson Mandela (link to Nelson Mandela speech on YouTube)
8) Bill Gates (link to Bill Gates speech on YouTube)
9) Steve Jobs (link to Graduation Speech at Stanford)
10) Rudy Gulianni (link to Rudy Gulianni speech on YouTube)
11) Colin Powell (link to Colin Powell speech on YouTube)
12) Ann Richards (link to speech from the Democratic National Convention on YouTube)
13) Ronald Reagan (Tear Down this Wall speech link, Challenger Disaster speech link)
14) Vaclav Havel (link to Vaclav Havel speech)
15) John McCain (link to John McCain Speech on YouTube)
16) George Bush (not in the book, at least at the end, but heres the link on YouTube)
17) Barack Obama (link to speech from the 2004 Democratic National Convention)
18) Clinton (link to Clinton Speech on YouTube)
19) Margaret Thatcher (link to Margaret Thatcher speech on YouTube)
20) Woodrow Wilson (link to speech on YouTube)

Winston Churchhill (link)
Charles DeGaule (link)
Robert F Kennedy (link)
George Clooney (hmmm…..) (link)
Indira Ghandi (link)

Honorable Mention:
• Randy Paush (Link to speech from YouTube)
• Jack Welch (link to Jack Welch speech on YouTube)
• Bill Cosby (link to Bill Cosby speech on YouTube)
• Walter Cronkite (link to Walter Cronkite speech on YouTube)
• Oprah Winfrey (link to Oprah Winfrey speech on YouTube)
• Mohamed Yunus (link to Mohammed Yunus speech on YouTube)
• Various College Speeches (link to university graduation speech on YouTube)

• I borrowed heavily from The 100 with 10 Extra Speeches: Insights and Lessons from 110 of the Greatest Speakers and Speeches Ever Delivered (link)

• This list is not a ranking per-se (I have the numbers for counting)

My favorite content on Speech Communication 2.0

16 Apr

See Comments.

Copywriting & Persuasion Methods

30 Jul

1. Pacing (conversation going on in their head)
2. Leading (call to action-esque)
3. If-then
4. Mind reading (forms of pacing–honestly not sure how its different)
5. Nominalization (vagueness….”this”)
6. Embedded questions (I wonder if…) (its interesting to think about…)
7. Pre-supposition (agreement/assumption/taken for granted/wisdom)–unpacking certain things about the world. Acknowledge others experience.

Non-verbals & inflection
Spacing them out = voice (?)
Inflection at the end vs. command (?)

• I get you. I understand you.
• Pacing & leading work great.
• Opening loops…(curiosity & questions)
• We have our own experiences. Our own lives.
• Versus Generalization
• Pacing & leading. Understanding = key
• Conflict–learning experience–resolution

Using TED Talks inside and outside the Public Speaking Classroom

6 Jan

Pat Foltz, public speaking teacher points out:

My Public Speaking students (college level) view a different Ted Talk each week and respond to those talks using the 4Rs: Reminders, Reinforcers, Rebuttals and Revelations. They usually become TEDheads by the end of a semester. They are all watching the same talk each week. I have mixed them up semester to semester, but the following are always favorites:
Sir Ken Robinson (any of his! I always start their TED experience with one by him.)
Benjamin Zander on music and passion (A HUGE crowd pleaser!)
Jill Bolte Taylor’s stroke of insight
Melinda Gates on what not for profits can learn from Coca-Cola

My surprise is the discussions that students have about the speakers. Some will love them, some will be indifferent and some will be bored. They will start analyzing why they liked or didn’t like a speaker and learn so much about knowing your audience and what strategies work and why!

SCORE Method of Presentation Organization

4 Jul

SCORE Method


In terms of the last section Example–is this more story or a case study? Also, where does the data go?

This method is borrowed from Advanced Presentations by Design. I haven’t read the book yet, but its next on my reading list. It comes heavily recommended by Nancy Duarte, who is particularly impressed with its analytical and scientific basis.

Simplify Your Presentation: Ten Year Old Rule

14 May

This is a both a rule of simplicity and audience adaptation….if your presentation can’t pass the a 10 year old can understand this. Research from the Seattle Post Intelligencer confirms this as a great rule.

Say it with a Story: Story Practioners Speak

14 May

Here is a link to a free ebook on story by story practioners.

Ten Step Process to Presentations

14 May

Here is a 10 step process method of presentations:

1. Audience — Who is your (most important) audience?
2. Objectives — What is your objective for this presentation?
3. Problem / Solution — What business problem are you helping to provide a solution for?
4. Evidence — What evidence are you offering to support your solution?
5. Anecdotes — Which anecdotes illustrate your message?
6. Sequencing — In what sequence will you present your evidence?
7. Charts — Which charts will best convey your data?
8. Layouts — What layout will you use for each slide?
9. Stakeholders — Have you addressed the concerns of each stakeholder?
10. Measurement — How will you measure the success of your presentation?

Tip: click the link to see a visualization of this process.

Death by Powerpoint: Info Overload

14 May

Here is an example of death by powerpoint highlighed by Steven Colbert recently. Yikes!!!!!

Robert Cialdini on Influence

13 May

According to psychologist Robert Cialdini, the six drivers of influence are:

social proof

How do you navigate these drivers within the three components of influence?

(“How to Harness Influence“)

Strength in Numbers: Motion Graphics

13 May

Here is a cool presentation called “Strength in Numbers” I believe it was done in Adobe After Effects, but I’m not certain. The movement in the presentation is fantastic.

Thoughts? How did movement create meaning, communication, or otherwise emphasize th message this organization was trying to communicate?

In Defense of Power Point

13 May

Here is an article from Business Week “In Defense of Powerpoint” (article link)

I think this would be great to read in combination with Edward Tuft’s critique of Powerpoint.

One Teacher Challenge

24 Apr

One challenge for this class involves teaching to both Mac and PC users. If your campus doesn’t have lots of Macs or a Mac lab this may prove difficult.

I think its important students know how to use iWork with both its Keynote and Pages software programs. These are in many respects industry standards and so students learning them can be helpful. Although, ultimately that is a judgment call each teacher has to make.

Scenario 1: No Mac Lab Time:
• Attempting to do something outside class times
• Creating an assignment based on learning the software
• Make software demos like Lynda freely available via DVD or online.

Scenario 2: A Tiny Minority of Current Mac Users
I don’t think this is really a challenge. I think explaining to the students why there is value in learning the software may be a slight challenge.

Mini-skill sets for the presentation designer

12 Apr

1) Brainstorming
2) Researching (including finding content, quotes, and visuals)
3) Storyboarding
4) Visual communication principles (identify pictures for presentation)
5) Typography for communication
6) Integrating typography with design
7) Using color for communication (meaning & messaging, color matching, clarity)
8] Simplicity (words and white space and elimination)
9) Size/Emphasis
10) Picking Transitions
11) Developing themes (and creating title and chapter slides for presentations–including layout)
12) Visual communication of data
13) Making a story/making a case
14) Motion
15) Communications design and information design (symbols)
16) Technology of presenting
17) Technology of design/presentation creation
18) Learning (skill development and inspiration)
19) Giving and receiving feedback (portfolio style)

(could also look at the Presentation Ecosystem by Duarte)

My thoughts on design thinking

8 Apr

I ran across this article on about design thinking. Its worth reading and contemplating.

You can read more articles about what design thinking is and the value of design thinking at


Networks Role in Ideas that Spread

6 Apr

Interesting presentation on networks.

What did you learn about networks or communication from the presentation? What typography and design techniques do you see?

Presentation Design Aesthetics

3 Apr

There are probably an infinite number of approaches for creating presentation design…but here are a few:

1) Etsy/DIY/Flickr
2) Modern
3) Minimalist
4) Future meets past
5) Punk
6) Comics
7) Retro/Motion graphics style
8] Government/Official/Authoritative
9) Grunge/Distressed
10) Graffiti or Tattoo Inspired

Of course color palette, font, template/background, and choices can all effect and communicate the aesthetic you are attempting to recreate. Between Ffffound, Noupe, Flickr, and, you should be able to find something which inspires you.

Better, Stronger, Faster: Communication and Presentation Design

3 Apr

Bigger, Stronger, Faster: Fourteen Ways to Improve Your Presentation Design and Strategy

1) How can I make my case visually? (pictures, symbols, diagrams, colors, typography)
2) How can I make my case emotionally?
3) How can I make it with story? How can I make it more personal and more real–both in content and design?
4) How can I weave in cultural elements/references?
5) How can I adapt to their values/needs/interests/perspectives/assumptions?
6) How can I answer their holdups and objections?
7) How can I add data to prove my thesis? (how can I visualize that data to make it more real?)
8] How can I frame it–how can I make it a movement?
9) How can I add a theme?
10) How can I make my presentation more memorable? Can I add a work aid/visual aid to make the content more memorable? How can I make the images, stories, and lines of reasoning more memorable? How can I make them pop or talkable?
11) How can I make my presentation more two way or engaging?
12) How can I make the nonverbal communication (outside design) better?
13) How can I add the core elements of CRAP design?
14) How can I add clarity? How can I KISS this?

Classroom Activity: Brainstorm what matters most.

Classroom Activity: Apply this rubric for self-critiques and peer reviews. Each presentation is peer reviewed by 4 people. Print out this rubric as an aid to help students. (Hopefully I’ll have a print out of this designed and posted soon)

Classroom Activity: Look for other rubrics and speaker critiques/design critiques. Which elements are most important?